Almost every piece of climbing gear you purchase is part of an important safety chain, and the quickdraws you use are no less critical than your rope or harness. A set of draws will last anywhere from a couple of years to a decade, and a set of twelve can set you back anywhere from $150 to $300 plus dollars, so it's not a purchase to take lightly. It's also a type of gear with a lot of technical specifications that can quickly lead to purchasing confusion. KiloNewtons, forging, and wiregates, oh my! We've broken down the various aspects of quickdraw design and construction and will point you in the right direction for what the best type of draw is for you. To learn more about the metrics we used to evaluate these products, check out our full review.
Gear manufacturers make pre-assembled quickdraws for purchase as a means of convenience and savings for the consumer. There's no reason why you can't buy the carabiners that you like the most and put them on a sling of your preference, but you will usually save a few dollars buying a pre-assembled model over purchasing the components separately. Let's get started by breaking down the two major parts of this product: the carabiners and the sling or "dogbone" between them.
Up until recently, carabiners have been made of either aluminum or stainless steel. Most rock climbing carabiners are made of aluminum. Steel carabiners are stronger than aluminum ones, but also much heavier, and are used mostly in industrial applications. You might run across some steel carabiners on in-situ or permanent draws, as they last longer than aluminum ones and you don't have to worry about their extra weight since they are already in place. They will still wear out eventually though (see picture below), and when climbing on in-situ gear, you should always scrutinize it carefully.
Edelrid has tried to meld the best of both types of carabiners with their Bulletproof model. This aluminum carabiner has a stainless steel insert on the bottom to maximize durability and minimize wear. As the photo of a steel carabiner above shows, steel will still wear out, so the Bulletproof won't last forever, but they should offer a much longer lifespan than a standard aluminum carabiner.
Aluminum carabiners are often anodized to protect the metal from corrosion. If the carabiner has any color to it besides light gray, then it is anodized. Anodizing is an important consideration if you climb on sea cliffs on a regular basis. Even still, the anodized layer quickly wears off where the rope runs, and the best protection against corrosion is to clean your gear, particularly if it has come into contact with salt water.
Hot-forged vs. Cold-forged
"Hot-forged" is the latest buzz word in carabiner construction. This manufacturing process results in lighter carabiners with more elaborate designs. The Black Diamond Oz and DMM Alpha Sport have hot-forged carabiners. According to Camp, however, cold-forging is a more reliable method and "produces fewer irregularities in the finished product." The average user is probably not going to know the difference between the two, except when spending more money on a hot-forged product.
There are some questions out there concerning hot-forged carabiners and durability. Although we weren't able to notice any difference in wear between a hot or cold-forged carabiner in our testing period, some people are seeing that their hot-forged carabiners are wearing out more quickly than expected. This might not be due to the forging technique so much as how much metal there is in the carabiner. A lighter weight carabiner will have less material on the surface that the rope runs over, leading to quicker grooving.
If you are looking for a durable product, the best bet is to buy a model with beefy cold-forged carabiners like the Black Diamond FreeWire Quickdraw or the Petzl Djinn Axess, along with the new Edelrid Bulletproof.
The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) regulates all manner of industries, including climbing. Manufacturers are required to meet minimum standards to be CE certified and sold in the EU, and most American manufacturers build to this standard also. All of the products we tested are CE certified — to see if your gear is CE certified look for a CE followed by four numbers stamped or printed on the carabiner. If it's not CE certified, as long as it meets the minimum strength requirements below it should be alright.The minimum CE requirements for a non-locking carabiner are:
Major axis — 20kN (lengthwise along the spine)
Gate open — 7kN (lengthwise but with an open gate)
Minor axis — 7kN (cross-loaded spine to gate)Most of the models we tested (in particular the heavier ones) had strength ratings within these ranges:
Major axis — 23-25kN
Gate open — 8-10kN
Minor axis — 8kN
What's the difference to you? Black Diamond conducted a series of drop tests to compare lightweight carabiners with the minimum strength requirements (20kN closed and 7kN open) vs. more heavy duty carabiners (25kN closed and 9kN open). In this test, the drop was a 1.7 fall factor with a static belay, and they repeated it until either the rope or carabiner failed.
Lightweight carabiners were more likely to warp or break after 3 to 5 drops. With the heavier duty carabiners, it was the rope that failed first after 5 to 8 drops, and the carabiners were still functional. The conditions on these drop tests are unlikely to occur in a real setting (for starters, you should always climb on a dynamic rope); however, gear manufacturers want to see the limits that their gear will take and create extreme testing scenarios to figure that out. The takeaway message is that when climbing in situations where you take big, repeated falls on your gear, you should use the appropriate gear. A heavier duty draw like the Black Diamond Positron Quickdraw or the Petzl Djinn Axess will serve you better than a lightweight rig such as the Black Diamond Oz for repeated, high impact falls.
If you do end up taking a significant or high factor fall on a lightweight carabiner or any of your gear for that matter, it's always a good idea to inspect it afterward and make sure the gate still opens and closes correctly, and that nothing is warped.
Carabiner gate technology has improved a lot over the years. The old-style solid gates with a pin that catches a notch in the nose of the carabiner are almost impossible to find anymore, and for good reason. The advantages of the newer gate technologies are hard to beat — lighter weight, safe, and snag free. All of the products that we tested were either wiregate or a keylocking solid gate. A wiregate is as it sounds - a single loop of wire is twisted around to create the gate on the carabiner. In most cases, the gate sits on an exposed notch in the nose of the carabiner.
Wiregates have a safety advantage over solid gates because they have less mass, and when the draw catches a fall on the rope, the lighter wiregate is less likely to vibrate and flutter open than a heavier solid gate. As the safety numbers above can attest, a carabiner with even a slightly open gate is three times weaker than with a closed gate, which can lead to the carabiner breaking in a fall. This is exceedingly rare, but the potential is there. None of our testers, with over 150 years climbing experience between them, have seen this in a real setting, but that doesn't mean it can't happen. Recently, professional climber Daniel Woods snapped a carabiner and took a major fall. It's hard to know exactly what happened in that situation, but it's possible that the bolt carabiner was partially open or "nose-clipped" on the bolt, which caused it to break in the fall.
One winning combination for quickdraws is a solid gate/wiregate combo, with a keylock carabiner on the upper end of the draw and a wiregate on the bottom. The disadvantage to this is that most wiregates still have an exposed notch that then catches on the rope when cleaning or seconding. Black Diamond has developed a new hood that covers the notch on some of their wiregates to prevent snags, like the Oz and the new Black Diamond LiveWire Quickdraw. Another clever solution to eliminating the notch inherent in wiregates is found on the Petzl Ange Finesse Quickdraws, which use the MonoFil Keylock design. This wiregate has only a single metal bar, or "wire", rather than the more common double over design, with an end that keys into a recess in the nose of the carabiner. Essentially, this is the exact same design as a keylock gate, except with the ball and key sides reversed.
Whether you need a wire or keylock gate also depends on the type of climbing you are doing most. In general, it's really nice to have a keylock (or keylock-like wiregate) for the upper carabiner, so that there is no notch to catch on the bolt, or when clipping nuts or slings. If you're doing a lot of steep sport climbing or top-roping you'll also want a keylock carabiner for the bottom so that the draw is easy to unclip, like the Petzl Spirit Express or Petzl Djinn Axess. Wiregates are less prone to icing up in cold conditions, so if you plan on using your draws in the winter, consider a set with dual wiregates such as the Black Diamond FreeWire.
A carabiner's lifespan is largely determined by the amount of use it receives, though occasionally corrosion is an issue. Our main tester had to replace her entire set of anodized draws after only four months of climbing in Thailand. Large flakes of aluminum were peeling off due to the corrosive effects of the salty air and limestone rock. For most climbers though, rope wear is what will affect the carabiners most.
Every time the rope runs through or over the bottom carabiner, minuscule amounts of aluminum are worn away. Most carabiners have a slight groove near the spine so that the rope pulls on the carabiner in its strongest axis. With enough wear that groove can become more pronounced and even develop a sharp edge, which can potentially sever your rope. This slow wear and grooving of a carabiner is more pronounced and tends to happen quicker in sandstone areas, where more sand and dirt is likely to be found within the climbing rope itself. Similarly, first draws on a climb wear much quicker than the other draws due to the angle the draw is pulled out at by the belayer standing away from the wall, thereby creating more persistent friction between the draw and rope. If you are climbing a route with fixed draws in place, be sure to carefully inspect the first draw in particular to be sure it doesn't have a sharp edge due to excessive wear. Due to this effect, it is common to leave the first bolt a fixed route un-fixed, so that whoever may climb it can use their own draw, eliminating the effect of one quickdraw or biner wearing out and becoming unsafe inordinately fast.
To minimize wear, avoid excessive top-roping, extend draws that are off the main line of bolts, and consider using a dedicated couple of burlier draws for your top-roping anchors, like the Edelrid Bulletproof. Finally, be sure to regularly inspect your carabiners for signs of wear, and retire all questionable pieces.
Draws come with a pre-sewn sling made either of nylon, polyester, or a brand name polyethylene (Dynex, Dyneema, Spectra). The slings are usually folded around themselves so that three layers overlap in one spot and are sewn or "bartacked" together. These sewn slings are often referred to as "dogbones" to differentiate them from longer slings or runners. To be CE certified the slings must be rated to 22kN when new. During our relatively short testing period, we didn't notice any difference in durability between nylon and polyester dogbones. That said, these two material do have notably different properties.
With regular use, the two main corrosive effects on the sling are UV exposure and abrasion. If you're taking your draws home with you at night, the UV exposure is not much of a concern. If, however, you're leaving your draws up on a sunny crag for weeks, or you're clipping in-situ draws that have been hanging for who knows how long, then this is an issue. Some people inspect every inch of their rope for core shots, and then clip in-situ draws of unknown origin or wear without a second thought. Just because it's hanging up there does not mean it is safe to use.
Black Diamond tested some worn slings that had been hanging at a crag for indeterminate amounts of time. Some were still near full-strength, and others failed at loads as low as 3.5kN. This is easily within the range of force exerted during a real-life fall, and there have been a few real cases lately of in-situ slings failing during a fall. While in-situ chain draws might not be pretty to look at, this is why they are a better option than leaving a sling draw.
When it comes to your own gear, it's good to continually inspect your slings for signs of abrasion and fading, and keep in mind that a worn out sling is probably more of a safety concern than a slightly grooved carabiner. If you want to geek out more on testing, check out Black Diamond's Quality Control Lab Blog.
When choosing which draw to buy, consider what type of climbing you will be doing most. Lightweight models have narrow slings to save some ounces, and that is great for the alpine, but not well suited to grabbing on a sport climb. Similarly, a wider or heavier set of draws will add unnecessary weight to your harness.Narrow (10-11mm)
Black Diamond Oz
Cypher Firefly II
Mad Rock Ultra Light Wire
Mad Rock Concorde
Metolius Inferno IIMedium width (16-18mm)
CAMP USA Orbit Wire Express KS
Petzl Djinn Axess
Black Diamond Positron
Black Diamond FreeWireWide and easy to grab (22mm and up)
Petzl Spirit Express
DMM Alpha Sport
Black Diamond LiveWire
Petzl Ange Finesse
The weight of your draws should be a key purchasing decision if you do a lot of long routes in remote locations. Even if you mainly single-pitch trad climb, you'll already be carrying several pounds worth of cams and nuts, so having a lightweight draw is a good idea. Of the lightweight models we tested, the Black Diamond Oz was our Top Pick. For sport climbing, a lighter version is nice for on-sighting, but if you're mostly hanging your draws and redpointing with them already in place, weight doesn't matter much. In fact, as mentioned above, you'll be better off with a heavier and stronger model that can handle the wear of multiple hard falls. Our favorite draw for sport climbing is the Editors' Choice-winning Petzl Spirit Express, or our Top Pick for Wiregates, the Black Diamond LiveWire Quickdraw.
Types of Climbing
Some people are Jacks and Jills of all trades, and others are dedicated to their sub-sub-sub disciplines. (i.e. If it's not onsight climbing on unconsolidated mud towers with knots for protection, it's not actually climbing!). With draws becoming more specialized, the type of climbing you'll be doing most should be one of your main considerations when choosing a draw. If you regularly do many different types of climbing, you don't necessarily have to buy a different set of draws for each, as some are good cross-overs.
Light and Fast
Black Diamond Oz (2.2 ounces)
Mad Rock Ultra Light Wire (2.4 ounces)
Trango Phase (2.4 ounces)
Cypher Firefly II (2.6 ounces)
Petzl Ange Finesse S/L (2.6 ounces)
Higher End Sport Specific
Petzl Spirit Express
Black Diamond LiveWire
DMM Alpha Sport
CAMP USA Orbit Wire Express KS
Black Diamond FreeWire
Black Diamond Positron
Petzl Djinn Axess
Metolius Inferno II
Mad Rock Concorde
Check out our full review, as well as our individual reviews of each of these products for more information about what makes them ideal for different disciplines.